Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Research

Vol. 1 No. 12 (2023): World Journal for Sand Therapy Practice

Perceptions of Sandtray as a Component of a Mindful Self-Compassion Workshop to Reduce Burnout in Nursing Students

DOI
https://doi.org/10.58997/wjstp.v1i12.59
Submitted
October 27, 2023
Published
12/01/2023

Abstract

Burnout is an increasing phenomenon in healthcare resulting in many nurses choosing to leave the profession, creating shortages. Nursing students experience burnout the same as professional nurses; however, equipping them with tools to build strength and resiliency may offer protection against burnout in the future. Mindfulness-based practices, like mindful self-compassion, have been proven effective at reducing burnout in healthcare workers. Mindful self-compassion has three components: moments of (1) self-kindness, (2) shared human experience, and (3) mindfulness. We, the authors, developed a workshop intervention based on principles of mindful self-compassion to teach undergraduate nursing students tools for managing emotional stress and reduce feelings of burnout. The use of sandtray was an essential component of this training. Three sandtray builds incorporated into the workshop served as the primary mechanism for fostering the shared humanity component required for mindful self-compassion. Qualitative feedback regarding the sandtray component was gathered immediately following the workshop and analyzed for common themes. The response to the experience was overwhelmingly positive. The feedback word cloud reporting – helped, think, reflect, visualize, express, open, and learn, as some of the most used phrases to describe the experience, as well as liked, loved, and great. Additionally, participants were asked what the most impactful experience was they took away from the workshop; the feedback word cloud indicated the sandtray component, specifically the “Strength Tray,” as the most impactful. Using sand therapy as a mechanism for fostering moments of shared humanity as part of a mindful self-compassion workshop is a novel application of this therapeutic technique and proved a valued and celebrated aspect by the participant population, undergraduate nursing students.

References

  1. Balban, M. Y., Neri, E., Kogon, M. M., Weed, L., Nouriani, B., Jo, B., Holl, G., Zeitzer, J. M., Spiegel, D., & Huberman, A. D. (2023). Brief structured respiration practices enhance mood and reduce physiological arousal. Cell reports. Medicine, 4(1), 100895. hhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2022.100895 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2022.100895
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, Sep 17). Infographic: 6 Guiding principles to a trauma-informed approach. Office of Readiness and Response. https://www.cdc.gov/orr/infographics/6_principles_trauma_info.html DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003005087-4
  3. Dall'Ora, C., Ball, J., Reinius, M., & Griffiths, P. (2020). Burnout in nursing: a theoretical review. Human resources for health, 18(1), 41. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-020-00469-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-020-00469-9
  4. Eriksson, T., Germundsjö, L., Åström, E., & Rönnlund, M. (2018). Mindful self-compassion training reduces stress and burnout symptoms among practicing psychologists: A randomized controlled trial of a brief web-based intervention. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 2340. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02340 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02340
  5. Haddad, L. M., Annamaraju, P., & Toney-Butler, T. J. (2023). Nursing Shortage. In: StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493175/
  6. Kriakous, S. A., Elliott, K. A., Lamers, C., & Owen, R. (2021). The effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the psychological functioning of healthcare professionals: A systematic review. Mindfulness, 12(1), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-020-01500-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-020-01500-9
  7. Maslach, C. (1993). Burnout: A multidimensional perspective. In W. B. Schaufeli, C. Maslach, & T. Marek (Eds.), Professional burnout: Recent developments in theory and research (pp. 19-32). Taylor & Francis. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315227979-3
  8. Miller, K. I., Stiff, J. B., & Hartman Ellis, B. (1988) Communication and empathy as precursors to burnout among human service workers, Communication Monographs, 55(3), 250-265. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637758809376171 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03637758809376171
  9. Neff, K.D. (n.d.). Definition of self-compassion. Self-Compassion. https://self-compassion.org/the-three-elements-of-self-compassion-2/
  10. Neff K. D. (2023). Self-Compassion: Theory, method, research, and intervention. Annual review of psychology, 74, 193–218. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-032420-031047 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-032420-031047
  11. Neff, K.D. (2019). The yin and yang of self-compassion: Cultivating kindness and strength in the face of difficulty. Sounds True.
  12. Neff, K.D., & Germer, C.K. (n.d.). Center for Mindful Self-Compassion: The program. Self-Compassion. https://self-compassion.org/the-program/
  13. Rolfe, G., Jasper, M., & Freshwater, D. (2010). Critical reflection in practice: Generating knowledge for care. Macmillan Education UK.
  14. Salvado, M., Marques, D. L., Pires, I. M., & Silva, N. M. (2021). Mindfulness-Based Interventions to Reduce Burnout in Primary Healthcare Professionals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 9(10), 1342. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101342 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101342
  15. Scheepers, R. A., Emke, H., Epstein, R. M., & Lombarts, K. M. J. M. H. (2020). The impact of mindfulness-based interventions on doctors' wellbeing and performance: A systematic review. Medical education, 54(2), 138–149. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.14020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.14020
  16. Shah, M. K., Gandrakota, N., Cimiotti, J. P., Ghose, N., Moore, M., & Ali, M. K. (2021). Prevalence of and Factors Associated With Nurse Burnout in the US. JAMA network open, 4(2), e2036469. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.36469 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.36469
  17. Siegel, D.J. (1999). The developing mind: How relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are. Guilford Publications.